Wednesday, August 7, 2019

Discuss how the constant improvement of diagnostic techniques drives Essay

Discuss how the constant improvement of diagnostic techniques drives improvements in our understanding and treatment of disea - Essay Example Although these techniques were helpful for initial evaluation, they could not effectively anticipate responses to treatment or risk of complications to specific treatment methods. However, there are many recent developments in the area of cancer diagnosis. The development of molecular based technologies for cancer detection facilitated the identification of an inherited risk of breast cancer in people. In addition, this development assisted physicians to more accurately evaluate the prognosis of those who already living with the disease. By predicting an inherited risk of developing breast cancer, it is possible to treat the disease at the earlier stages and to avoid complex procedures like breast amputation. Likewise, an accurate evaluation of the prognosis would assist physicians to introduce suitable intervention mechanisms timely and prevent the diseases from getting deteriorated. Some recently developed diagnostic methods particularly focus on the identification of patients who are most likely to respond to certain type of treatment. This is very beneficial for reducing future complications associated with cancer treatment. Currently, analysis of gene expression data and computer aided imaging are the good techniques to predict the risk of cancer in patients and the response to particular treatments (Alexe et al 2009). In addition, cancer screening method has been developed to diagnose the disease even before the symptoms appear. As a result of these improvements in cancer diagnostic techniques, today people are increasingly aware of the benefits of early detection of cancer. In addition, such improvements have led to the development of more effective cancer treatment procedures. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease affecting the human immune system and is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). During the initial period of infection, the affected person may experience influenza like illness. This initial stage is generally foll owed by a long period without symptoms. As the diseases progresses, the patient becomes more vulnerable to other infections like opportunistic infections and tumors. Unsafe sexual intercourse and unsecure blood transfusions are the major causes of the HIV transmission. As per 2010 data, nearly 34 million people have contracted AIDS worldwide. Currently, statistical data indicate that the incidence of AIDS has decreased relative to the past decades. This decline in the prevalence rate can be attributed to improvements in HIV diagnostic techniques. Traditionally, the first generation immunoassay tests have been employed to diagnose the presence of HIV. Under this technique, HIV lysate was used as the source of antigen to capture the presence of the antibody in the sample (Chappel et al 2009). The first generation tests had many shortcomings because they often gave false-positive results as a result of the contamination of the antigen and variations in the lysates. The failure of first generations tests led to the introduction of second generation anti-HIV-1 immunoassays. The mean infectious window period was reduced from 56 to 42 days as a result of this invention. The second generation tests were based on ‘recombinant Escherichia coli- derive antigen preparations’

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